Infertility can be a result of structural problems relating to the patient’s pelvic cavity. Such problems may include endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, ovarian cysts, tubal blockage, or uterine fibroids, as well as problems with the uterine cavity itself such as polyps, fibroids, intrauterine adhesions, or congenital malformations. Reproductive surgery can often correct these problems and allow a couple to conceive without any further therapy. Furthermore, surgical treatment may be indicated to improve the pelvic cavity prior to proceeding with other treatments such as intrauterine insemination (IUI), the use of fertility drugs, or In Vitro Fertilitzation (IVF).
Laparoscopy is an out-patient surgical procedure in which a telescope-like structure is placed through a small incision in the navel that allows your physician to examine the pelvic anatomy. In conjunction with the use of the laser, cautery devices, and other instruments, your doctor can resect endometriosis, remove scar tissue or ovarian cysts, open blocked tubes, and even remove damaged tubes, thus avoiding the need for more invasive inpatient surgery.
Hysteroscopy is an outpatient procedure in which an instrument is inserted through the cervix into the uterine cavity to allow your physician to inspect the inside of the uterus for fibroids, polyps, scarring, or abnormal shape. If abnormalities are identified, they often can be repaired at the same time using operative instruments through the hysteroscope, thus making the uterine cavity have a more-normal configuration.